PLATO was a Idealist philosopher, because of his doctrine of Forms. Plato considered Form, like redness or goodness, to be more real than a manifestation of the form. He said, the world of change is unreal, and Form which does not change and only can be known by reason is the true reality.

Republic, The

Plato's Republic (c.370 BC) contains his ideas of government and justice. The book is a debate between Socrates and five other speakers, it is best known for its ideal state, which Plato says should be ruled by philosopher type of kings. The philosopher is best suited to govern because he is able to go outside the cave and view the world. Where others do not do so because of religious beliefs or fears. The story of the cave (book 7), is Plato's ideal Forms. People in the cave are in the world of illusion and ignorance; only philosophers have gone out side the cave to see the ideal forms of justice.


Neoplatonism has influenced Christian and Islamic philosophy and theology. Neoplatonists evolved from the skeptics, who believed that knowledge is only possible from a direct vision of the Platonic Forms, which exist beyond the heavens. Neoplatonists claimed that an individual must have a vision of these ideal Forms. They took Plato's myths literally, of this vision, to be the prerequisite of starting new religions.


Skepticism ("to examine" or "to consider") is a name for the philosophic idea that rejects claims to certainty. Opposed to dogmatism, an belief of authoritative certainty. It claims knowledge is limited by the mind itself or by the lack of ability to reach the heaven of Form.


From "knowledge" and logos "theory" the theory of knowledge. A branch of philosophy that studies the source or limits of knowledge. It looks at the criteria, structure and origin of knowledge. Deals with perception, the relationship between the knower and the object, the kinds of knowledge and the amount of certainty for each kind, the source of truth, and the justification for conclusions.

An epistemological subjectivist believed that appearances are the only reality that can be known and that each individual is a part of all things. All knowledge depends on a person's experience, for which that individual alone is judge. Knowledge is relative to each person.

Knowledge must be unchanging and have reality as its object. Because experience is constantly changing, it cannot be the source of knowledge and therefore can't be real. Because there is knowledge, there must be another unchanging realm that is the source of knowledge. This realm is called Forms, or Ideas and can only be known by reason. Plato believed that knowledge was having true belief justified by evidence. The justification or evidence was provided by appealing to the Forms.


Comes empeiria, meaning "experience" empiricism means that true human knowledge comes to the mind, by the senses, through experience. Knowledge gained through the imagination, authority, or tradition, is not legitimate reasoning. They regard claims to knowledge in fields like art, religion, and metaphysics as unverifiable.

Rationalists believe that human reason is a basis for some kinds of knowledge. Knowledge found by reason, prior to experience, is called a priori knowledge. Knowledge found from experience is called a posteriori knowledge. Rationalists claim that knowledge can be obtained from certain priori truths by deduction. Empiricists say human beings can have no pure reason and all knowledge is a posteriori and found by experience threw induction. Rationalists call mathematics a example of a priori truths.


The theory that reality is composed of indivisible small elementary parts called atoms. E=Mc2 or Energy = Matter. A more complex version "Quantum Field Theory " is used by scientists today.


Philosophy connected with the structure of reality. It ask questions as: Are the objects we see real or illusory? Does the world exist apart from our consciousness of it? Is reality reducible to a single substance? If it is, is it spiritual or material? Is the universe orderly or chaotic? Is reality one or more basic substance? What kind of substance?

Metaphysics is divided between materialists who believe that all reality is physical and idealists who believe reality is spiritual and nonmaterial.


Materialists explain change as the action and reaction of physical particles with one another. Many philosophers believe that only the natural sciences can legitimately find the nature of reality.


Are like atheist who think religious beliefs are like an act of cowardice, or "philosophical suicide." That these are in fact crutches for weakness, what the weak and mediocre use against the strong. It is called "the herd," the legacy of a slave that prefers safety and security.


Agnosticism says that it is impossible to know about the existence of GOD. From agnostos ("unknowable") they believe that knowledge is impossible on matters covered by religious doctrines. Atheists reject belief in the existence of God. Skeptics have a strong suspicion that God does not exist. Agnostics don't make judgments.


From "without" and theos "deity", the denial of the existence of a deity. Source, 1995 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia

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